Dense, scrambling, evergreen perennial shrub. Stems are < 20 m long, brown and scaly when young and often spiny when mature. Leaves are oval and < 9 cm long, with wavy margins and sliver/brown scaly undersides. Flowers are small, pale white/brown and borne in clusters in autumn. Fruit is oblong, pale red/orange, < 18 x 10 mm and ripens in winter.
To help protect our environment:
Regenerating forest, forest margins, roadsides, hedgerows, cliffs, semi-open disturbed habitats.
Seeds dispersed by birds and mammals. Vegetative spread from fragments, stem layering and root suckers. Human-mediated dispersal through dumping of garden waste, soil movement and deliberate planting.
Forms dense thickets that smother vegetation. May impede recreational access to natural areas.
Follow up treated areas 3 times per year. Encourage natural regeneration of native plants or replant treated areas where possible after 2-3 treatments to establish dense ground cover and minimise reinvasion.
CAUTION: When using any herbicide or pesticide please read the label thoroughly to ensure that all instructions and safety requirements are followed.