Erect perennial fern allies. Rhizomes are extensive to < 1 m deep and tuberous. Stems are rush-like, erect and jointed. Spore cones are borne on the ends of fertile stems in spring.
To help protect our environment:
Water body margins, wetlands, drains, croplands, roadsides, bare land.
Spores seldom produced in NZ. Vegetative spread from rhizomes, stem fragments and tubers, dispersed by water and soil movement. Human-mediated dispersal through contamination of machinery and deliberate plantings.
Highly competitive in wetland and riparian margins, excludes other vegetation and alters nutrient cycles. Toxic to livestock.
Follow up treated areas 3 times per year. Encourage natural regeneration of native plants or replant treated areas where possible after 2-3 treatments to establish dense ground cover and minimise reinvasion.
CAUTION: When using any herbicide or pesticide please read the label thoroughly to ensure that all instructions and safety requirements are followed.